7 – more 1845 — Whitfields, Christisons

Posted originally on January 19, 2015 by Neil.

This series of posts is the most comprehensive I have done on family history. I am doing them backwards here so that in due course they will appear sequentially.

It was about this time William and Caroline Whitfield left Sydney, eventually settling in Picton. That remnant housing in Surry Hills from the 1840s at McElhone Place shown in the last post looked like this earlier in the 20th century – pre-trendy!

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The Harbour was of course already splendid, as this 1845 painting by Jacob Janssen in the Art Gallery of South Australia shows.

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That is on the My Place site – an excellent resource for background decade by decade, designed originally to support the excellent ABC children’s television series My Place based on the book by Nadia Wheatley and Donna Rawlins.

I wonder if the Whitfields of the 1840s kept any kind of contact with their old country, Ulster, which they had left in 1821 (Jacob) and 1825 (William). I also wonder what they would have sounded like, those old Ulstermen….

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There’s County Cavan on the left. Not such a good place to have been in 1845, it would appear. See The Great Famine in Cavan.

The Great Irish Famine was, to quote a cliché, a disaster waiting to happen. Between 1750 and 1850 Ireland’s population grew beyond a level at which it could sustain itself. Much of this demographic growth was based on the availability of one food item and when this was withdrawn not just once, but on successive occasions, it resulted in widespread destitution. This was worsened by the structural and ideological failure of those in authority to provide for their sustenance and to prevent the resultant spread of disease.

The population of Ireland on the eve of the Famine stood in excess of 8 millions. The population of Co. Cavan alone was just short of 250,000 – nearly five times its present population. The reasons for this demographic ballooning, which had occurred in the space of little over a century, can be traced to the availability of the potato which provided food security for peasant farmers with little land of indifferent quality. Not surprisingly the potato was adopted with alacrity throughout Ireland, unlike the hostile reception it initially received elsewhere in Europe.

In Cavan and throughout the northern half of Ireland the advent of flax cultivation and domestic linen production had augmented a further security. Areas supplying linen markets like Cootehill became semi-industrialised, as cottages and cabins were modified to deal with the various processes involved in the process of turning flax fibres into cloth. This was sometimes accompanied by the neglect of farm-based food production. When, after 1825 the cottage linen industry collapsed in the face of mechanised production in factories near Belfast, many areas of Ireland, including Co. Cavan, experienced widespread destitution. Ireland lacked industries which could have absorbed surplus agricultural populations, as was the case in the north of England. However there was a growth in urban populations as towns, including Cavan and Cootehill (amongst others) attracted settlers from their rural hinterlands in search of greater though non-existent prosperity of the towns who were confined to unhealthy yet extensive shanty-towns on their peripheries.

The mid 1840s were years of increased tension in Cavan. Acts of physical violence became common. In May 1845 James Gallagher, the under-agent on the Enerys’ estates at Ballyconnell was badly assaulted and died later the same day with forgiveness on his lips for his assailants. Three months later the unpopular George Bell Booth of Crossdoney was assassinated. December 1847 saw the death of the well-known controversialist Father Thomas Maguire. His passing was widely attributed to poisoning, though as the late Fr Dan Gallogly pointed out, this might have been administered by members of his own erstwhile flock who were dissatisfied with his denunciations of physical force methods…

The Famine in Cavan, in common with the rest of Ireland, had its winners and losers. Alas the latter numerically surpassed the former. Those who were already poor and badly-fed were most vulnerable to the food disruption and attendant diseases, and those who came into contact with them, like doctors, were also prone to fall victim to the lethal cocktail of viruses that escaped from the Famine’s Pandora’s box. Others whose positions in society allowed them to eschew contact with the teeming masses, who could afford better food, enjoy more favourable hygiene and heating were insulated from its effects. It is true that while Ireland was in the grip of famine there was no shortage of food in the country. Profits were also made by merchants who exported agricultural items…

The potato famine also affected Scotland.

The eviction of Highlanders from their homes reached a peak in the 1840s and early 1850s. The decision by landlords to take this course of action was based on the fact that the Highland economy had collapsed, while at the same time the population was still rising.

As income from kelp production and black cattle dried up, the landlords saw sheep as a more profitable alternative. The introduction of sheep meant the removal of people. The crofting population was already relying on a potato diet and when the crop failed in the late 1830s and again in the late 1840s, emigration seemed the only alternative to mass starvation.

The policy of the landlord was to clear the poorest Highlanders from the land and maintain those crofters who were capable of paying rent. The Dukes of Argyll and Sutherland and other large landowners financed emigration schemes. Offers of funding were linked to eviction, which left little choice to the crofter. However, the Emigration Act of 1851 made emigration more freely available to the poorest.

The Highlands and Islands Emigration Society was set up to oversee the process of resettlement. Under the scheme a landlord could secure a passage to Australia for a nominee at the cost of £1. Between 1846 and 1857, around 16,533 people of the poorest types, mainly young men, were assisted to emigrate. The greatest loss occurred in the islands, particularly Skye, Mull, the Long Island and the mainland parishes of the Inner Sound….

My maternal ancestors, the Christisons, were still in this part of their old country in 1845.

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As I previously posted: On my mother’s side of my family – the Christisons – I note my great-great-great-grandfather David was a teenager in 1815, having been born in 1799 in Fettercairn, Kincardine. Seems the poor old sod died in the poorhouse July 21, 1860 of chronic bronchitis. His wife had also died July 2, 1859 in Poorhouse, Luthermuir, Marykirk, Kincardine.  That I’d never known before. Note Poorhouses in Scotland “provided medical and nursing care of the elderly and the sick, at a time when there were few hospitals and private medical treatment was beyond the means of the poor.”

And that brings us back to our local area, to Shellharbour where one branch of the Whitfield family would settle in the late 19th century and in due course marry into the Christison family in 1935.

Caroline Chisholm Park

In 1843 Mrs. Chisholm took up 4 acres at Shellharbour for the settlement of immigrants.  In December, 1843 Mrs. Chisholm left Sydney with thirty families totalling 240 people to settle at Shellharbour.

One hundred years later Sir Joseph Carruthers said “Work such as this great and noble woman did ought never be forgotten, least of all in places like Shell Harbour where she did so much for settlement.”

See also:

Caroline Chisholm ‘The Emigrants Friend’ was renowned for assisting immigrant women and families to settle in Australia.

On the 6th December 1843, Caroline brought 23 families of some 240 persons to the harbour at Shellharbour where Captain Robert Towns (son-in-law of D’Arcy Wentworth) as part of Dr Lang’s immigration scheme offered some 4000 acres of land on the Peterborough Estate for families to settle on clearing leases. This allowed families to live rent-free for 6 to 7 years on the land on the condition they clear the land of trees for future farming.

Caroline Chisholm’s diary relates, that when the families boarded the ‘Wollongong’ steamer for the voyage to Shellharbour on 6 December 1843, all stayed on deck until the ship cleared the darkening Heads, then settled down to sleep, while the sea sick lined the rails. The party awoke to a distant view of the beautiful south coast. Some of the children were sea-sick by the time they landed at Shellharbour, the spot most convenient to the proposed settlement’. ‘Fifty-one Pieces of Wedding Cake’-A Biography of Caroline Chisholm – Mary Hoban.

One such family, Matthew Dorrough his wife Martha and their children came with Caroline Chisholm and farmed the area known today as Shell Cove. The family spent their first night under the stars, with the children huddled up under the roots of a large fig tree at the edge of the beach. Next morning they were picked up by bullock dray and transported to the site of their proposed farm. Matthew’s house was adjacent to the beach and he was delegated the job of retaining and issuing the stores to the other settlers on the Estate. He was an experienced farmer and their crops were good, and with the help of his eldest children and Martha, the family prospered.

By 1857, many of the Immigrants had secured or leased homes and properties. The settlers turned mainly to dairy farming. By 1861 the population had grown to 1,415 and land began to open up throughout the whole of the new Municipality of Shellharbour.

Hoban, MC ‘Fifty One Pieces of Wedding Cake: A Biography of Caroline Chisholm, Lowden, 1973.

And this article (PDF) by Neroli Pinkerton:

In 1840, NSW was passing into a depression. Sydney was experiencing high rates of unemployment. Rural labour was needed but the government had no plans for dispersing the throngs of assisted immigrants who remained in Sydney without employment. Caroline Chisholm sent circulars to leading country men seeking
information and enlisting help. In November 1843 she spoke to the Select Committee on Distressed Labourers, telling them that most immigrants emigrate to “live and have land” and she outlined a scheme for settling families on the land with long leases. The government, however. was slow to take up the challenge and unwilling to invest in her schemes. Undaunted, she began the arrangements to settle 23 families on land provided by Robert Towns at Shellharbour …

Incidentally those conditions in Sydney  may help to explain why William and Caroline Whitfield left Sydney when they did.

10 — 1865 — Picton and more

Posted originally on January 22, 2015 by Neil with additional material from March 6, 2013.

This series of posts is the most comprehensive I have done on family history. I am doing them backwards here so that in due course they will appear sequentially.

Here we are starting to see some people I actually remember.

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That is enlarged from a tintype photo:

The invention of the tintype in 1854 brought the reality of photography closer to the mass population. A Tintype consisted of a thin iron ( not actually tin ) plate coated with a wet collodion emulsion. Once developed the tintype exhibited crisp detail on a varied gray background. The average tintype was about 2.5 x 3.5″ however many other sizes were produced, including miniature tintypes the size of postage stamps. Initially presented in ornate cases with pressed metal boarders similar to that of the Daguerreotype, most tintypes were housed in decorative card sleeves, specially designed albums or often left loose. While certainly more robust than a Daguerreotype, the tintypes emulsion was sensitive and often scratched due to careless handling….

It is a portrait of Thomas Daniel Sweeney Whitfield, my grandfather, who was born in Picton in 1866.

His father, William Joseph John Whitfield, had been born in Sydney in 1836, marrying Elizabeth Ratcliffe in 1861.

While WJJ did go on to considerable success in the Picton/Myrtle Creek/Tahmoor/Bargo area, the 1860s had their moments, it appears. This is from February 1866.

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Meanwhile Picton was being linked to the world by rail!

Following the completion of the first railway from Sydney to Parramatta Junction in 1855, proposals for the first railways to the rest of NSW were driven by postural communities interests seeking improved transport for their produce from inland centres such as Goulburn, Bathurst, Singleton and Muswellbrook. When John Whitton arrived in Sydney in 1856 to take up his position as Engineer-in-Chief of the NSW Railways, “he understood his job was to plan the extensions which would take the infant railway into the interior of Australia. At that time only the railway from Sydney to Liverpool was open, just twenty-one miles (34km) in length. Its extension to Campbelltown and beyond to the banks of the Nepean River at Menangle, a total of about seventeen miles (27km), had been surveyed” (Lee, 2000, p98). This was one of the first sections of line completed by Whitton by 1862…

When John Whitton planned the railway extension from Campbelltown to Picton, he was under pressure from government to keep costs low by using as much local material as possible, and originally proposed a timber bridge for crossing the Nepean River at Menangle. However following a large flood in 1860, Whitton designed a high level wrought iron large span bridge to get extra clearance from the waterway. Flanked by long timber approach viaducts, the bridge was a total of 582 m (1,909 feet). It was a massive structure for its time, comprising 5,909 cubic yards of masonry, 1,089 cubic yards of brickwork and 936 tons of wrought iron for a total cost of 94,562 pounds. The completion of the bridge in 1863 was an internationally recognised engineering achievement (Lee, 2000).

The single line from North Menangle to Picton opened on 1 July 1863 with Picton Station opening on the same date. The contract for the construction of the station buildings was awarded to M Jamieson & Eaton. The design of the Georgian style station building at Picton is attributed to Whitton and was completed for the opening of the single line in 1863. Other notable early stations attributed to Whitton include Mittagong, Moss Vale, Scone, Muswellbrook, Penrith (No.3 platform), Bowenfels and Mount Victoria. These early buildings borrow heavily from Whitton’s design experience in England and increasingly move from Georgian to Victorian architectural styles and represent Whitton’s obstinate faith in British railway standards and workmanship which continued throughout his career (Lee, 2000).

A goods shed and engine shed were also constructed at Picton in 1863. Picton remained the terminus of the line until the line was extended to Mittagong in 1867…

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Picton Station 1863

You can read about the difficulties attending that Mittagong extension here.

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Segue to my mother’s family, and the first time England gets a mention in this series*:

Henry HUNTER

  • Born: 2 JUN 1846, Kirkby Thore, Westmorland, England
  • Baptised: 12 JUL 1846, Kirkby Thore, Westmorland, England
  • Died: 20 JUL 1912, Dulwich Hill,N.S.W., Australia
  • Buried: Rookwood Cemetery, Sydney

married 31 DEC 1867, St Michael, Appleby, Westmorland — Isabella Ann NELSON

  • Born: 1845, Bongate, Appleby, Westmorland
  • Baptised: 30 DEC 1845, St Michael, Appleby, Westmorland
  • Died: 23 JUL 1925, Dulwich Hill, N.S.W., Australia
  • Buried: Rookwood Cemetery, Sydney

They had the following children:

  1. Elizabeth Anne HUNTER
  2. Mary HUNTER
    • Born: 15 AUG 1870, Middlesborough, Yorkshire
    • Died: 5 JUN 1872, Middlesborough, Yorkshire
  3. Margaret Jane HUNTER
  4. John Henry HUNTER
  5. Nelson HUNTER
    • Born: 29 DEC 1876, Sydney,  New South Wales,  Australia
    • Died: 2 AUG 1878, Sydney, New South Wales,  Australia
  6. Isabella HUNTER
    • Born: 7 APR 1879, Goulburn, New South Wales, Australia
  7. Emily HUNTER
  8. Ada HUNTER
  9. Thomas HUNTER
  10. Mabel HUNTER

Ada Hunter was my grandmother, my mother’s mother, and wife of Roy Christison. Mabel was cousin Irma’s mother and wife of Horace Martin. My mother’s middle name, which she suppressed, was Isabella. My own name could have been Nelson as the uncle Neil Christison after whom I am named was originally Nelson.

In a post about my mother’s late cousin Irma Martin (1916-2013) I used this photo taken at Dulwich Hill during World War I of the Hunter family.

Irma was born on 21 August 1916, her parents being Horace Martin, a teacher, (1887-1970) and Mabel Martin, nee Hunter (1888-1966). Ada Hunter, Mabel’s sister, was married to Roy Christison, thus my mother’s father and mother. That is the Hunter family above with my mother and her brother Eric (with the boat) next to the pram. It would not be impossible that Irma is the one in the pram but it may also be my mother’s sister Beth.

I remember Aunt Margaret, married to Charles E. TREVOR, a baronet, so the story went – a title that was treated by some of us with a fair amount of derision.

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But the story about the baronetcy was true, except Charles was a second son!

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Thomas Hunter had a son, Harry, born in 1923/4 who was killed in New Guinea in 1944. I do recall hearing this mentioned at some time.

And am I right in thinking that the patriarch, Henry Hunter, was an engine driver? Certainly seeing Goulburn mentioned in that family tree brought back stories Grandma Ada told me about him and Goulburn, and his being crippled with arthritis partly as a result of time spent in the cab of steam locomotives.

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Kirkby Thore, where Henry Hunter was born in 1846. The station, now demolished, opened in 1862.

So many half-recalled stories and such scope for someone to do some detective work.

I certainly remember being told that the old lady, Isabella, centre in that group photo, spent her last years imagining she was in Westmoreland again.

And I should also mention that my great-grandfather John Hampton Christison and my great-grandmother Sophia Jane Christison nee Lillie had both been born in 1858: in his case in Scotland, in hers in Australia. On GenForum:

George Lillie (Born 1834 in Aberdeen to Thomas [Lillie] and Martha Mathers) married Mary Collier in 1836. They went to Sydney, Australia as assisted immigrants and had the following children: Mary, George G., Thomas C., John K., Frederick W. and Sophia J.

*Correction

Kind of true, given I haven’t mentioned it yet in this series, but the Wests (as in Caroline Philadelphia West, wife of William Whitfield) and the Ratcliffes (as in the wife of William Joseph John Whitfield) were of English background, just for starters.

14 – 1885 — Christisons

Posted originally on January 28, 2015 by Neil

This series of posts is the most comprehensive I have done on family history. I am doing them backwards here so that in due course they will appear sequentially.

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Me being atavistic…

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My grandfather, Roy H Christison (1886-1962) — late 1880s

I am not sure whether the marriage of his father John Hampton Christison to Sophia Jane Lillie on 24 May 1880 killed the minister, but…

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Yes, people also called her Sophia Jean. And I actually remember her as she died in 1952.

And here is Brechin, where John H came from:

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That photo actually came with the Christisons from Scotland around 135 years ago!  Nearby in Arbroath is this magnificent ruin:

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In 1772, the famous English diarist, Dr Samuel Johnson, passed through the town, and noted: “The Monastery of Aberbrothock is of great renown in the history of Scotland. Its ruins afford ample testimony of its ancient magnificence. I should scarcely have regretted my journey had it afforded nothing more than a sight of Aberbrothock.”source

When in 1885 John H Christison had a vineyard at Hinton where my grandfather Roy was born he called his property Aberbrothock.

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Quite the Romantic was John H, and a noted Professor of Scottish Dancing (and etiquette).

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January 1880

You can read more about this rather amazing but tricky character in my post My great-grandfather: “morally dubious to say the least.”  My cousin Ray Christison is mentioned quite a bit on that post; he has written a book about John H: Shapeshifter – the strange life of John Hampton Christison, Professor of Dancing. Here is an interesting snippet by Ray from the comment thread on my post:

Neil, I have been trawling through my old notes and have begun writing a full biography of John Hampton Christison (currently about 5,000 words and growing). I will publish it as a small book. You asked about John dancing before Queen Victoria. John listed his major dancing awards in the 1882 Manual of Dancing & Etiquette. He stated this: “at Edzell Castle, 1873 I took first prize, a Highland dirk, at Balmoral Castle in 1875, second against thirty, most of them professional men”. Queen Victoria may or may not have been present when John danced at Balmoral Castle. Given John’s penchant for self-promotion I find it bizarre that he would not have specifically mentioned this in a work as important as his Manual of Dancing & Etiquette. I have a very vague memory of Kathleen Christison telling me that he danced there before one of the other royals, however I can’t find any notes to corroborate this.

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See also October 2016: Two romantic old buildings: Scotland and NSW.

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Victoria Hotel, Hinton NSW: Built in the 1840s it is now one of Australia’s oldest continually licensed hotels.

14a — Christisons: My Scottish great-grandfather

Posted originally on January 27, 2017 by Neil

This series of posts is the most comprehensive I have done on family history. I am doing them backwards here so that in due course they will appear sequentially. This intermediate post is abridged.

My cousin Ray Christison has posted this on Facebook.

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January 25 was Burns Night (the night on which Scots celebrate the birthday of the poet Rabbie Burns). This has hit a chord with me this January as I have been busy editing the draft artwork for my biography of my enigmatic and shapeshifting great-grandfather John Hampton Christison. I know that this book has been eagerly awaited by my relatives and by Australian dance historians, and hopefully it will be published very soon.

His is a fascinating story…

The following was taken about 74 years ago at 61 Auburn Street Sutherland.  L-R: John H Christison Jr, Eric, John’s father, Sophia Jane Christison (my great-grandmother), Roy Christison Senior, and finally my brother Ian Whitfield.

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I note that CNN reports that “half of Donald Trump’s DNA is Scottish. His late mother, Mary Anne MacLeod, was born and raised on the remote and beautiful Scottish Isle of Lewis, before leaving as a 17-year-old for the United States to work as a domestic servant in 1930.” That is the nearest I get to having anything in common with Donald J Tweet, who gets worse and worse as the days go on.

18 – Christisons 1895

Posted originally on February 3, 2015 by Neil

This series of posts is the most comprehensive I have done on family history. I am doing them backwards here so that in due course they will appear sequentially.

The late1880s and 1890s were full of drama for my maternal great-grandparents.

John Hampton Christison

You may recall we last saw him as, among other things, a pioneer vigneron in the Hunter Valley. Until 1889:article18975304-4-003

John H and his wife and young family (including my grandfather Roy aged about 3) had hotfooted it back to J H’s homeland:

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There is by the way a wonderful family story that on the way to or from Scotland – I forget which – my grandfather Roy was washed overboard but then washed back by the next wave! But especially for my great-grandmother Sophia Jane, Scotland ended in tears – and eventually divorce (1892). Given J H’s rather cavalier attitude to paying bills, the 1890s for Sophia Jane and her children were hard indeed – not to mention the fact J H kidnapped my grandfather Roy and his brother David at one point.

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Mind you J H was back in business before you could say “etiquette”! From the Singleton Argus, 5 October 1895.

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Finally, the voice of the man himself in a letter to the editor from The Maitland Mercury and Hunter River General Advertiser Thursday 19 May 1887:

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20a: Heimat/Shellharbour

Posted originally on February 5, 2016 by Neil

This series of posts is the most comprehensive I have done on family history. I am doing them backwards here so that in due course they will appear sequentially.

Several decades here, but let’s start with this photo from 1956.

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That’s Shellharbour’s ocean pool, image from Shellharbour History in Photos. It’s a bit unclear but I could almost believe the man right foreground is my father, especially if what is immediately behind him is a white dog (is it?) in which case the kid running towards him may well be me! We were holidaying in Shellharbour in the summer of 1956.

That pool was renovated and renamed Beverley Whitfield Pool in 1994. See Beverley Whitfield on the Shellharbour Local History blog.

12661968_1740439649512704_2123985810144368757_nL to R: Edgar (Dunc) Gray, Mayor Cec Glenholmes, Beverley Whitfield, Andy Gerke and Terry Gathercole

Andy Gerke was Beverley’s uncle, and my cousin Una’s husband. Sadly Beverley died two years later at the age of 42. I was at the funeral, but circumstances had led to my family not seeing much of the Shellharbour Whitfields after 1975.

For my father Shellharbour remained Heimat.

Heimat is a German concept. People are bound to their heimat by their birth and their childhood, their language, their earliest experiences or acquired affinity. For instance, Swiss citizens have their Heimatort (the municipality where the person or their ancestors became citizens) on their identification. Heimat as a trinity of descendance, community, and tradition—or even the examination of it— highly affects a person’s identity.

Though in the war years he broke away yet he always was rooted in that place and time 1911-1938. Indeed he returned in 1970 until illness/distress forced his return to Sydney in 1975. Strangely I too have returned in a way, back here in Wollongong almost six years now after an absence of 30 years, But I have only been back to Shellharbour once, and that just before I actually returned to the Illawarra. See Shellharbour – a double post (2010) and more posts here, here and here.

You see, there is much of Heimat in Shellharbour for me too, even if my parents left it before I was born. We did constantly visit in my childhood, and many a story have I heard about the place. But the place of my childhood is not there any more. Well, it is, but its surrounds buried under suburbia, some of it good and some of it rather awful. Progress I suppose.

Here is my childhood’s Shellharbour:

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21 – Christisons — 1905

Posted originally on February 5, 2015 by Neil

This series of posts is the most comprehensive I have done on family history. I am doing them backwards here so that in due course they will appear sequentially.

Here is shapeshifting John H Christison in South Africa in 1900.

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I borrow the term “shapeshifter” from my cousin Ray Christison’s book on our great-grandfather. See also his ABC Open item Private Christison’s bandolier.  I have told the story of J H Christison’s transformation into soldier at the age of 42 before – see below. Here are a couple of news items from 1900.

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See also my 2011 posts South African War and my family… and John Hampton Christison in South Africa.

In 1905 J H Christison’s father, and thus my great-great-grandfather, David died in Mittagong NSW.

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See also my post from 2011 Scans worth preserving–5: Christisons 1–my mother’s family.

See also: Scans worth preserving–2: re Sophia Jane Christison 1858-1952; Being Australian 16: inclusive multiculturalism Aussie style 9 – my tribes; Family matters.

In that last post I reviewed “Leonie Knapman’s Joadja Creek, which I [had] just borrowed from Wollongong Library, [including] some excellent pics of my great-great-grandfather and great-grandfather.”

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David and Catherine Christison – my great-great-grandparents.

Back in Sydney in 1899 my grandfather Roy Christison had the accident that caused one of his distinguishing features: in my childhood an eye patch.

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As I remember him!

Then in 1908:

More at Mainly family. Roy took his new bride to the tiny Hawkesbury River settlement of Spencer, NSW, where he had started his fully fledged teaching career in 1906. In my mother’s words:

Dad [Roy Christison Snr] completed his training at the age of 20 and his first school was then a very small place called Spencer on the Hawkesbury River. It was eleven miles down or up river from Brooklyn Railway Station. In those days it was only accessible by water so Dad was met at the station and rowed by the mother of a fisherman to his place of work.

sjlHe was perhaps one of the luckier ones because he had his mother (right) who at a very young age had been left to shoulder the responsibility of bringing up her family alone. To do this she took in boarders and she herself, a very refined lady, went out to work starting at 3 am to scrub and clean office buildings in the city. With two of her children married and the youngest daughter able to stay with her married sister, Gran was left free to go with Dad to become his Housekeeper. He felt he owed her his help and care now he was in a position to give it to her. I think his wage was about nine pounds a month.

He was able to rent a sort of cottage — slab built — which had belonged to a fisherman or an orange orchardist who had found life just too hard. In front of the house was a bush track which led to the school building — also slab built; and here a very dedicated and ambitious young man started his career as a teacher….

My mother was born there in 1911.